Bedding for Rabbits: Is It Even Necessary?

Are you piling up fluffy blankets for your bunny thinking it must love the softness? Stop right there! Though it may look cozy to you, traditional bedding can actually do more harm than good for your rabbit. Ditch the dangerous myths around cage bedding and learn why your furry friend is healthiest and happiest with bare floors. From explosive digestion issues to deadly skin conditions, we’ll uncover the shocking hazards of bedding materials you likely thought were safe. Say no to stuffing your rabbit’s cage with riskypadding and yes to better nurturing its natural nesting instincts. Read on for enlightening research and simple tips to comfortably bedding-proof your rabbit’s home!

Why your rabbit probably doesn’t need traditional bedding

Rabbits are quite different from many other common pet animals in that they do not inherently require bedding material in their enclosures. Wild rabbits naturally live in underground burrows which they dig themselves, so soft bedding material is not something they have evolved to need. Domesticated rabbits retained this characteristic from their wild ancestors. The natural floor of a rabbit's burrow would be hard-packed earth and roots, not soft bedding.

As prey animals, rabbits have very sensitive feet that are designed to detect vibrations through the ground for approaching predators. Thick bedding material can actually interfere with this natural defense mechanism. Rabbits usually prefer smooth, flat surfaces under their feet rather than very soft bedding that they sink into.

Rabbits are also fastidiously clean animals and tend to be quite hygienic. They naturally use latrine areas for urination and defecation and avoid soiling their living spaces. Wild rabbits keep their burrows very tidy. Domestic rabbits will do the same if provided with an appropriate sized living area that has a secluded corner they can use as a litter box.

A soft bedding substrate spread across the whole enclosure goes against a rabbit's natural tendencies to keep its environment clean and dry. Any absorbent bedding material will quickly become damp and soiled despite the rabbit's best efforts at maintaining good hygiene and litter habits. This can lead to potential health problems for the rabbit's feet and skin.

Overall, traditional soft bedding doesn't provide much benefit for pet rabbits, and even interferes with some of their natural behaviors and tendencies. It's best to avoid using it unnecessarily.

Why it’s best to avoid unnecessary bedding

There are a few key reasons why it is generally advisable to avoid using soft traditional bedding materials such as aspen shavings or straw in your rabbit's enclosure:

  • Dampness and soiling – As mentioned already, any absorbent bedding substrate will quickly become damp and soiled. Rabbit urine has a very strong ammonia odor that bedding holds onto. This can lead to an overly stinky environment that is difficult to keep clean and hygienic for the rabbit's health.

  • Risk of digestive issues – Rabbits occasionally ingest bedding while grooming themselves. Eating substrate can lead to gastrointestinal problems, especially if the rabbit consumes a large quantity over time.

  • Physical hazards – Loose particulate bedding poses some risk of eye injuries or foot damage. Long strand fibrous bedding can potentially tangle around legs or block the digestive tract if eaten.

  • Expense – Bedding is an ongoing cost consideration, as it needs to be replenished frequently. Rabbits are very messy with litter and hay, further increasing bedding needs.

  • Time commitment – Soiled bedding needs to be cleaned out and replaced often. Spot cleaning damp areas and full litter pan changes will be necessary multiple times per week.

  • Behavior discouragement – As discussed already, bedding may prevent rabbits from behaving in natural ways like digging, running, and keeping tidy.

  • Insulation issues – Thick bedding material can make temperature regulation challenging. Rabbits are vulnerable to heat stress since they cannot sweat or pant to cool down.

For most pet rabbits, bedding simply causes more problems than it solves. Owners are usually better off skipping loose bedding altogether and using more suitable substrate materials selectively in certain areas of the enclosure, like within litter boxes.

What about comfort?

It's understandable that some rabbit owners are drawn to the idea of providing a soft, cushioned surface for their bunnies to rest on. We associate bedding with comfort, so doesn't that mean our pets want it too?

In the case of rabbits, the answer is generally no. Rabbits do not find the same qualities comfortable that we humans do. In fact, traditional loose bedding often does the opposite and makes rabbits feel insecure.

As prey animals that rely on their sensitive feet, rabbits want firm footing they can grip with their toes. Digging into very soft bedding is unnatural for them and difficult to move around in.

Rabbits want sleeping surfaces that allow them to quickly jump up to alertness. Being sunk into deep, cushy bedding inhibits their ability to react swiftly to any perceived threats.

Coolness and dryness is comforting to rabbits so they can regulate their body temperature. Wet spots or insulation from bedding prevents this. Hard surfaces dissipate heat faster.

Of course, extremes should be avoided too. Hard surfaces like wire mesh or rough wood can damage feet over time. Providing a gentle surface is still important. Clean grass mats, interlocking foam tiles, or well-maintained linoleum floors work nicely. Rotate areas with soaked urine often.

Smooth, packed earth or straw nests are natural to rabbits. Prioritize dryness, traction, and cleanliness in their spaces. Avoid assumptions that they want or need what feels cozy to humans. Rabbits simply have different physical comfort preferences.

Outdoor vs. indoor rabbits

The bedding needs for outdoor rabbits versus indoor rabbits also differ quite a bit. Outdoor rabbits that live in hutches typically require some bedding because their environments can't be climate controlled.

Outdoor rabbits are more prone to drafts, dampness, and temperature fluctuations than indoor rabbits. Appropriate bedding helps buffer these effects and gives outdoor rabbits a dry, insulated place to rest.

Some natural bedding choices like straw are suitable for outdoor hutches. Straw absorbs moisture fairly well while allowing air circulation. It also provides warmth and a place for the rabbit to burrow down into. Replace wet straw frequently.

Wood shavings or shredded newspaper can work for outdoor rabbits too, but avoid dustier, more aromatic softwood shavings. Newspaper strips or pellets are very affordable options. Ensure the ink is nontoxic soy or vegetable based.

Indoor rabbits kept in homes don't require the insulation, cushion, or burrowing opportunities that outdoor rabbits do. Stable indoor temperatures and solid enclosure floors are often sufficient. Focus on absorbent litter instead of bedding.

Of course, each individual rabbit may indicate different needs through their behavior. An elderly arthritic rabbit may appreciate plush memory foam, for example. Be observant of your pet's preferences.

Bedding vs. litter

An important distinction for rabbit owners to understand is the difference between bedding and litter. Many use these terms interchangeably, but they serve different functions.

Bedding refers to a substrate material covering the floor of the rabbit's main living space. This is traditionally soft but, as discussed, usually unnecessary and counterproductive for rabbits.

Litter refers to absorbent substrate placed in a litter box for waste. This is essential for maintaining hygiene and assisting the rabbit with proper toilet habits. Litters made from paper, wood, or grass fibers are ideal.

Hay is another useful addition. Providing grass hay in litter boxes and throughout their enclosures stimulates natural grazing activity and provides enrichment. Avoid alfalfa hay for rabbits over 7 months old.

Understanding the separate applications of bedding versus litter helps guide good decision making. Litter should be plentiful. Bedding is usually best eliminated altogether. Fill their environment with hay and litter instead.

What NOT to use as bedding or litter

Some common material choices are hazardous for rabbits and must be avoided. Here are a few key examples:

  • Softwood shavings – Cedar and pine produce phenols and oils that irritate rabbits' respiratory systems and skin. Even phenol-free woods like cedar and pine still pose dust risks.

  • Clay cat litter – Clumping clay litters contain bentonite. The adhesive properties pose major intestinal blockage risks if ingested.

  • Fabric bits – Rabbits may chew and ingest any fabrics placed in their enclosure. Eating thread, cloth, or batting leads to deadly GI obstructions.

  • Rocks or pebbles – Hard aggregates used as cage decoration can damage teeth and internal tissues. Rabbits may try eating these minerals tomeet nutritional needs.

  • Recycled paper – Ink and chemicals used in paper production can be toxic. Unless specified safe for rabbits, avoid using discarded paper.

  • Corn cob bedding – Cob particles have sharp edges and pose intestinal perforation hazards if consumed. The lignocellulose also is indigestible.

  • Wheat or grain straw – Fungal spore exposure risks exist with old straw bales. Ingesting moldy straw can make rabbits extremely ill. Use fresh packages labelled 'rabbit safe'.

  • Mineral fluff – Clay crumbles marketed as cat litter contain phenols, dust, and fine particles harmful to rabbit respiratory health and digestion.

Always thoroughly research any new substrates before using them for rabbits. A material may be perfectly safe for other pets yet dangerously inappropriate for rabbits. When in doubt, stick to plain paper or grass products.

Alternatives for the base of your rabbit's enclosure

Instead of bedding, consider these solid flooring alternatives to line the base of your rabbit's housing:

  • Vinyl or linoleum – Sheets of waterproof flooring are easy to wipe down. Avoid textured surfaces that could annoy feet.

  • Sealed concrete – Concrete won't absorb urine odors. Apply multiple sealant layers so liquids can't seep in.

  • Ceramic tile – Use large groutless tiles. Grout can trap urine and harbor bacteria. Smooth ceramic is very easy to clean.

  • Interlocking foam mats – Affordable puzzle piece pads provide cushioning for hard floors. They're lightweight too.

  • Grass mats – Natural dried grass mats are soft but still firm. They allow good traction and are gentle on feet.

  • Untreated wood – Wood offers traction and is warm for resting. Apply water-resistant sealant and avoid chewing / digging damage.

  • Brick or paver stones – In outdoor hutches, brick floors stay dry and allow digging without completely collapsing.

  • Packed dirt – An all-natural dirt bottom can work well for large outdoor enclosures. Ensure the soil is healthy.

Avoid wire mesh or wire cage bottoms. Rabbits require solid, supportive flooring that won't hurt their feet. Tile, linoleum, grass mats, and wood are great universal options.

Should you give your rabbit something to sleep on?

While unnecessary across their whole enclosure, providing a resting spot for sleep is still considerate. Rabbits appreciate having areas they can retreat to for napping in comfort and privacy.

Some suitable resting space options:

  • Plywood box with low entrance – Allows dark secure burrowing. Elevates off cold floor. Limit size to prevent bathroom use.

  • Corner hammock sling – Mesh or fabric cradles suspended to create hidden nesting nooks up off ground.

  • Stacked straw bales – Outdoor hutches can use stacked straw rectangles for burrowing and hiding spaces.

  • Grass turf mat – Natural dried grass turf layer allows digging, chewing, and nest making behaviors.

  • Untreated pine 2×4 – Rabbits like chewing and digging into untreated wood while resting on the shavings they create.

  • Cardboard box – Enclosed cartons provide security. Replace frequently as they get soiled and worn. Avoid tape or slick coatings.

  • Phone books – Stacked phone books filled with hay or shredded paper make cozy, amusing hideouts. Replace often.

  • Bed hidaway – Place a covered bed or hide box in a corner draped with a blanket for dark privacy.

  • Guarded heating pad – Thermostatic heating pads under an enclosure floor area provide soothing warmth for elderly or arthritic rabbits. Moderate temperature and watch closely to ensure safety.

Let your rabbit's behaviors guide you to the types of lounging and sleeping spaces they most appreciate. Provide clean, dry options and watch them burrow in happily on their own preferred terms.


Traditional soft bedding may seem appealing but offers few benefits and poses several health risks for pet rabbits. Instead of bedding, focus on proper flooring and plenty of litter. Hay and resting boxes allow rabbits to sleep and lounge comfortably using their natural nesting instincts. Avoid unnecessary bedding and keep their environments clean, dry, and stable. Your rabbits will be safer and healthier when kept bedding-free!


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