How Many Babies Do Rabbits Have in Their First Litter?

The pitter patter of tiny paws is one of the greatest joys of rabbit ownership. But exactly how many fluffy little bundles will arrive in a new mother’s first litter? While too many kits can overwhelm a first-time mom, too few may signal health issues. From ideal litter sizes to troubleshooting challenges, breeding rabbits brings rewards and risks. Join us as we deep dive into the fascinating world of rabbit reproduction. We’ll cover everything from mating behaviors to kit survival rates. Whether you’re an experienced breeder or just curious about the mysterious rabbit maternal instinct, get ready for an informative adventure into rabbits’ remarkable reproductive capabilities!

How Many Baby Rabbits Survive Out of a Litter?

The number of baby rabbits (kits) that survive out of a litter depends on several factors, including the mother's age, the size of the litter, and environmental conditions. On average, about 75% of kits from a healthy doe's first litter will survive to 8 weeks of age. However, litter survival rates can vary widely.

Some key factors that affect baby rabbit survival include:

  • Litter size: Larger litters tend to have higher mortality rates. With big litters, competition for milk can be fierce and some kits may not get adequate nutrition. The average size for a first litter is 4-12 kits.

  • Mother's age: Older, experienced does tend to take better care of kits and have better survival rates. Young first-time mothers may abandon kits or fail to properly nurse and clean them.

  • Nest conditions: Exposure to bad weather, predators, or unsanitary conditions can result in kit loss. An indoor nest box offers better protection.

  • Time of year: Spring/summer litters tend to do better than winter litters due to more favorable temperatures and food availability.

  • Genetics: Some rabbit breeds and bloodlines produce more robust, vigorous kits with higher survival rates.

  • Disease: Newborn rabbits have an immature immune system and are susceptible to pathogens that can wipe out a litter. Good sanitation practices reduce this risk.

On average, a healthy doe's first litter of 8 kits has a survival rate around 75%, so 6 of the kits would be expected to survive to 8 weeks old. However, survival rates could be higher or lower based on the factors mentioned above. An experienced breeder might achieve 90% survival, while a young doe's first litter could have only a 50% survival rate.

Providing the doe with proper nesting conditions, nutrition, and care is key to maximizing the chances for kit survival. But even under the best conditions, some degree of kit mortality is normal. By the second and third litters, does usually gain experience and have better maternal skills, resulting in stronger and larger litters.

My Rabbit is Ignoring Her Babies

If your rabbit doe is ignoring her babies, don't panic. But it does require some action on your part to ensure the kits survive. Here are some common reasons a mother rabbit might ignore her litter and what you can do about it:

  • She's stressed. Giving birth and suddenly having a litter to care for is stressful for new rabbit moms. Some does need a few days to adjust to motherhood before properly tending to their kits. Provide a quiet, safe area for the litter and minimize disturbances.

  • The nest has been disturbed. Mother rabbits are very particular about the location and arrangement of their nest. If it gets moved or altered, the doe may abandon it. Try recreating the nest as close as possible to the original in a sheltered area she chooses.

  • She's lacking nutrition. Nursing a litter requires extra nutrition. Make sure the doe has unlimited access to quality hay, pellets, vegetables, and water. Improved nutrition may encourage her maternal instincts.

  • She's ill or hurt. Pain, illness, or medical issues like mastitis can prevent a rabbit doe from nursing. Have her examined by a rabbit-savvy vet and treated if necessary before reintroducing her to the kits.

  • The kits are ill or not thriving. Does may ignore kits that are sick, weak, or otherwise failing to thrive. The best chance of survival is to remove them for supplemental feeding and care.

  • She's pregnant again. It's possible for a doe to get pregnant again within a couple days of giving birth. This can cause her to wean early or ignore the older litter. Be sure to separate the buck after breeding.

  • Maternal inexperience. First-time mothers may not understand the babies are theirs to care for. With time, most figure it out. Provide assistance until her instincts kick in.

If the doe continues ignoring kits after trying the above, you'll need to step in as surrogate parent. Keep the kits warm and nurse them with a milk replacement formula every 2-3 hours. Rotate kits between mom and surrogate care to give the doe more time to bond. Hand-raising orphaned bunnies requires dedication but can be done with patience. Get guidance from an experienced rabbit breeder or vet. Don't give up too soon, as many does will gradually begin caring for the litter on their own.

Can Baby Rabbits Live with Their Father?

In the wild, male and female rabbits do not live together outside of mating. However, domestic rabbits have the potential to live together harmoniously as bonded pairs, even after babies arrive. But there are some important considerations before deciding if baby rabbits can live with their father:

  • Intact bucks can be aggressive – Unneutered male rabbits tend to be territorial and hormonal. The father bunny may harm or kill the kits, especially if the litter isn't his. Never leave babies unsupervised with an intact buck.

  • The father won't feed the kits – Only the mother rabbit can nurse and care for the babies. The buck cannot substitute for maternal duties like nursing, cleaning, or keeping them warm.

  • The father may impregnate the doe again – Male rabbits are fertile again within hours of mating. If left together, the buck may impregnate the doe before she's physically ready, putting both mother and litter's health at risk.

  • The male may be stressed by the situation – Even neutered bucks may display territorial behaviors around new babies and suffer from the disruption to their normal environment and relationship with the female.

That said, there are situations where the father rabbit successfully co-parents the litter under close supervision:

  • The parents are an established, bonded pair who get along well.

  • The male rabbit is neutered, which reduces hormonal behaviors.

  • The father is gentle, docile, and has shown no signs of aggression.

  • The doe has an enclosed nest the buck cannot access.

  • All interactions are carefully monitored, and the buck is never left alone with the babies.

With precautions, some father rabbits adapt to babies and exhibit protective behaviors like guarding the nest from threats. But it's essential to separate them at the first sign of danger to the kits. Ultimately, whether baby rabbits and father can co-exist depends on the individual rabbits and circumstances. It requires an attentive owner willing to intervene if needed.

Why is My Rabbit Eating Her Babies?

It can be alarming and upsetting to find a mother rabbit has eaten some or all of her babies. But it's not necessarily a sign she is an unfit mother. Here are some reasons this disturbing event may occur:

  • To cull unhealthy kits – Rabbits instinctively make tough choices to ensure survival of the strongest offspring. A doe may eat newborn kits that seem unlikely to thrive, perhaps due to birth defects, weakness, or inadequate milk production.

  • The kits have died – If babies die from illness, chilling, or another cause, the doe may eat the carcasses to keep the nest sanitary. This is natural rabbit behavior.

  • The nest was disturbed – Mother rabbits are very particular about their nest site. If it gets altered or moved, she may abandon it completely and eat the displaced kits.

  • She's lacking proper nutrition – Nursing does require about double the calories and nutrition. Hunger and nutritional deficiencies can cause does to cannibalize newborns. Ensure she has unlimited hay and pellets.

  • Stress – Extreme environmental stress may trigger abnormal behavior like eating offspring. Try to minimize loud noises, children/pets hassling her, etc.

  • First-time mother – Some young does may not understand their role in caring for offspring. Be patient and minimize interference as she learns.

  • Mastitis – Infection and inflammation of the mammary glands causes severe pain that could lead a doe to kill her litter. Treat mastitis quickly.

  • Pregnancy toxemia – This life-threatening metabolic crisis prompts nursing does to eat strange things, including rabbits. Seek emergency vet care.

If rabbit kits are being cannibalized, remove survivors immediately and hand-raise them. Correct any environmental issues and get veterinary help for possible medical problems. But remember nature can be harsh, and sometimes kit loss is no one's fault. Focus on improving conditions for future litters.

My Rabbit Still Hasn’t Had Her Litter

If your pregnant doe seems to be taking longer than expected to kindle (give birth), don't panic. But be attentive as an overdue litter can endanger the bunnies. Here are some tips:

  • Know the due date – Mark your calendar 28-35 days from the first day you noticed mating. First-time mothers often kindle on day 31-35.

  • Look for nesting signs – In the days before kindling, the doe will become restless, shred papers, and gather nesting material. Loss of appetite and fur pulling also signal imminent birth.

  • Feel for kits – Experienced breeders can sometimes feel large litters in the abdomen when labor is very close. But be gentle.

  • When overdue, give a checkup – Past day 35, have the doe examined by your rabbit-savvy vet to check for complications like uterine infections or pregnancy toxemia.

  • Don't induce labor unless medically necessary – Interventions like hormone shots come with health risks to mother and kits. Let nature take its course.

  • Provide a nest box – Offer a secluded, warm box with nesting material so she has an appropriate place to kindle when ready.

  • Limit stress – High stress levels may delay labor. Give the doe a calm environment during her pregnancy.

  • Watch for problems – Call the vet if the doe seems in pain, ill, or has a vaginal discharge indicating trouble.

  • Be patient – Some does, especially first-timers, kindle slightly late. Give her extra attention and nutrition but let the birthing process happen naturally if possible.

While an overdue litter can be nerve-wracking, most does birth their kits safely within a 42 day maximum gestation window. Stay in close contact with your vet during the waiting period. If babies have not arrived by day 42, the vet may advise medical intervention for the health of the doe and litter. But in most cases, the wait ends with a happy, healthy litter of bunnies.


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