Rabbits hopping through fields and forests capture our imagination, but the lives of these common mammals are full of more drama than meets the eye. The natural world poses endless threats for rabbits, yet they manage to thrive in many habitats through specialized adaptations and behaviors. Delve underground to discover the elaborate warrens where rabbits socially live and reproduce. Learn how cottontails and jackrabbits differ, and how the European rabbit has spread beyond its original home. From their sleeping patterns to their eating habits and defense mechanisms, the daily routines of wild rabbits reveal fascinating strategies for survival. Get ready to uncover the remarkable world of rabbits in the wild!
Rabbits can be found living in a variety of habitats around the world. Their natural habitats include woodlands, grasslands, deserts, wetlands, mountains, and even urban areas. The specific type of habitat a rabbit species occupies depends on its needs for food, shelter, and safety from predators. Some key features rabbits require in their habitat include areas to hide and nest, plentiful grasses and vegetation for food, and adequate cover from predators.
The European rabbit, for example, thrives in open landscapes with grasslands and shrublands. They make their homes by digging burrows in soft, well-drained soil. The brush rabbit prefers chaparral habitats in southwestern North America with plenty of shrubs and scrub. Pygmy rabbits are found in dense sagebrush habitats of the Great Basin region of the western United States. Volcano rabbits inhabit alpine grasslands at high elevations on volcanoes in Mexico. Swamp rabbits, as their name suggests, live in swamps and marshes throughout the southeastern United States. Desert cottontails make their homes in arid desert scrublands and canyons of the American southwest. Identifying the ideal habitat is key to the survival and success of each unique rabbit species.
Rabbits can be found living on every continent except Antarctica. Here are some key details about the range of both wild and domesticated rabbits:
The European rabbit is native to southwestern Europe and northwest Africa but has been introduced in other parts of the world including Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and Argentina.
Cottontail rabbits various species occupy much of North, Central, and South America. The eastern cottontail is common throughout eastern and central United States and Canada.
The volcano rabbit is endemic to the mountains of Mexico.
Pygmy rabbits have a small range including parts of the Great Basin desert in Idaho, Montana, Utah, Nevada, Oregon and California.
The Amami rabbit is native to two small Japanese islands.
The riverine rabbit is native to the riverine vegetation of South Africa’s Karoo region.
The domestic rabbit is kept as livestock worldwide. Though not found naturally in the wild, escaped domestic rabbits have established feral populations in areas including Australia and Great Britain.
Rabbits have been introduced to places far outside their native ranges. Wild European rabbits now inhabit areas of Australia, New Zealand, and Chile. Domestic rabbits live as invasive species in the wild in parts of the United States including Florida and New Hampshire.
Cottontail rabbits make up the genus Sylvilagus, found throughout the Americas. There are 16 recognized species of cottontail rabbit including the eastern cottontail, desert cottontail, marsh rabbit, and swamp rabbit. Though similar in appearance, each cottontail species has adaptations to thrive in its specific habitat.
Cottontails are generally small to medium-sized rabbits with long hind legs, short fluffy tails that resemble cotton, and large ears. Their fur is typically grayish-brown, with white underparts. Cottontails are nimble herbivores that eat a variety of plants including grasses, bark, leaves, fruits and vegetables. When threatened they either freeze or dart away in a zig-zag pattern to reach the safety of a hidden burrow or hole.
The eastern cottontail is one of the most common and widespread cottontail species in North America, found throughout the eastern and central United States and Canada. It prefers open brushy areas like woodlands, thickets and edge habitats near fields. The desert cottontail inhabits the arid lands of the southwestern United States and Mexico. It gets most of its moisture needs from the food it eats and requires less free water than other cottontails. The marsh rabbit and swamp rabbit live in wetland environments and are strong swimmers adapted to the semiaquatic lifestyle.
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is native to southwestern Europe and northwest Africa but has been widely introduced elsewhere. It is a highly adaptable species that thrives in open habitats like grasslands, woodlands, and scrublands. A burrowing animal, the European rabbit lives in underground colonies called warrens which provide shelter and safety.
European rabbits have greyish-brown fur with a light belly and tails with white undersides. They are a sociable species that lives in social groups and communicates using techniques like scent marking and body language. Though they primarily eat grasses and herbs, European rabbits will also feed on buds, twigs, roots, and crops if their preferred foods are scarce.
Due to their rapid reproduction, European rabbits are viewed as an invasive pest in some regions where they’ve been introduced like Australia and New Zealand. Population numbers fluctuate largely based on the prevalence of predators, diseases, and availability of food. Myxomatosis, a deadly viral disease first introduced to control rabbits in Australia, causes periodic crashes in wild populations.
The European rabbit is the ancestor of all domesticated breeds. Rabbits were first domesticated in monasteries in southern France around 600 CE. Today rabbits are bred as livestock and pets around the world.
Rabbits are most active at dawn and dusk, a pattern called crepuscular activity. This offers them some protection from daytime predators and also allows them to take advantage of cooler temperatures. Rabbits emerge from their burrows or hiding spots at first light to begin feeding. They may take short breaks during the day to sun themselves or interact with other rabbits, but spend much of their day resting in shaded spots. As evening approaches they become active again to continue browsing and socializing until bedding down at night.
Rabbits are alert with all their senses while active. They constantly scan for signs of danger and are ready to dart away at the first hint of a threat. Their large movable ears enhance their hearing and allow them to detect predators. Rabbits thump their large hind feet on the ground to communicate warnings of danger. Running in a zig-zag pattern helps confuse pursuing predators. When threatened at close range, rabbits will freeze, flatten themselves against the ground, and rely on cryptic coloration to avoid detection.
Though they rest more by day, rabbits do not actually hibernate or have significantly varied seasonal activity levels. They remain active year-round, though may spend more time sheltered in burrows in extreme weather. Nursing female rabbits visit their young only once or twice a day to limit attracting predators to the nest site.
Rabbits are herbivores that thrive on diets of grasses, herbs, bark, buds, leaves, seeds, and fruits. Most rabbits eat a wide variety of plant foods though some species have more specialized diets. For example, pygmy rabbits rely heavily on sagebrush. Rabbits have continuously growing teeth allowing them to constantly gnaw off vegetation.
Grasses make up the major part of most rabbits’ diets. Rabbits favor tender young grass shoots which offer greater nutrition and are easier to digest than more mature grasses. Rabbits will also eat woody plant parts like the bark and twigs of shrubs and trees, especially in winter when herbaceous foods are less available. Soft fruits, seeds, fungi, and even insects may supplement a rabbit's diet in small quantities.
Rabbits are crepuscular feeders, most actively grazing at dawn and dusk. They use their lips and front teeth to break off vegetation, while food is chewed with the molars in the back of the mouth. Specialized organs in the digestive tract allow rabbits to extract nutrients from fibrous, low-calorie plant materials. Rabbits also re-ingest some of their feces to further digest food contents.
In the wild, rabbits must spend much of their awake time foraging and browsing to acquire sufficient nutrition. Availability and quality of food resources play a major role in rabbit populations. Insufficient food can cause starvation, while lower nutrition food leads to slower growth and reproduction. Abundant food enables higher density populations. Some rabbit species also raid gardens and agricultural crops if available.
Though timid and flighty, rabbits are quite social creatures that live in communities of interconnected burrows called warrens. A warren provides shared shelter, safety, breeding sites, and protection of young in a rabbit colony. The membership, social structure and extent of communal living varies between rabbit species. Cottontails are more solitary, but Old World rabbits like European rabbits live in dense, highly social colonies.
Within warrens, rabbits communicate constantly using body posture, vocalizations, scent markings, and other signals. One rabbit thumps a hind foot to warn others of a predator. An intruding rabbit may be chased out by resident rabbits. Rabbits groom and nuzzle each other to reinforce social bonds. Urine and feces are strategically deposited throughout warrens to communicate territory, social status, and breeding condition.
Rabbits often rest, feed, and interact peacefully together above ground near their warrens. But most social activity occurs within the underground burrows, protected from predators and weather. In large colonies, subgroups form around dominant males. Rabbits cooperate in digging and maintaining complex burrow systems. Some warrens may extend for many acres with thousands of entrance holes.
Colonies and Warrens
Rabbits live in social groups centered around an underground colony, called a warren, consisting of a network of burrows and tunnels. Warren size and complexity varies by species. Cottontail warrens are simple with just a few openings. But European rabbits build vast, elaborate warrens extending over acres of land. Warren size depends on rabbit density, soil conditions, and risk of predation. Where rabbits are abundant, warrens may contain thousands of residents.
Within the warren, rabbits create special purpose chambers including nesting rooms for raising young, food storage areas, communal latrines, and emergency escape routes. Complex warrens have multiple entrances/exits allowing quick escape from predators. Rabbits mark runs with scent cues to guide navigation through the maze of tunnels. Separate tunnel systems may exist for different social groups in a large warren.
Building warrens allows rabbits to take shelter underground safe from harsh weather and most predators. Burrows also provide room to bear and raise litters of altricial young. Cooler temperatures within the burrows help rabbits stay active during hot weather without overheating. Deep in their warrens, rabbits can rest securely when not foraging above ground.
Warrens require continual maintenance as tunnels collapse and entrances erode. Rabbits use their continuously growing teeth and claws to dig and excavate dirt. They carry loose soil to the surface with their forepaws, depositing it around entrances in characteristic piles. Some warrens may have stood for decades or even centuries housing generations of rabbits. If a warren is damaged or abandoned, rabbits will migrate to construct a new colony.
Predators and Defense
Rabbits are prey animals, hunted by many predators. They rely on a combination of habitat, camouflage, speed, caution, and their warrens to survive under constant threat. Rabbits employ many tactics to avoid falling victim to hungry predators in their environment.
Rabbits are very vigilant and ready to flee danger at the slightest hint of a threat. Their eyes are positioned high on their head, giving them a wide field of view. Large movable ears enhance hearing and allow detection of even subtle sounds that may indicate a nearby predator. Rabbits typically rest in shallow depressions they form in vegetation, providing cover while also allowing quick escape.
At signs of danger, rabbits may freeze and flatten themselves against the ground, relying on cryptic coloration to avoid detection. If given enough warning, they hastily hop away in evasive zig-zag patterns to reach the nearest burrow. Inside the warren, rabbits are sheltered from most predators. Rabbits also thump their powerful hind feet on the ground to warn other rabbits of imminent danger.
Some common rabbit predators include foxes, coyotes, bobcats, weasels, hawks, eagles, and snakes. Even small mammals like raccoons, skunks, and domestic cats hunt rabbits. Humans also hunt wild rabbits for food and sport. Larger rabbit species may attempt to fight smaller predators if cornered to defend their life. But hiding, running, and early detection are a rabbit's primary defenses against ending up as prey.